Law Professor Frank Rudy Cooper has published an article proposing a new approach to policing, writing that “One imperative of masculinity is that you may not allow another person to show you disrespect. …Police officers sometimes punish disrespect because they believe ‘a challenge to their respect is a challenge to their manhood’… [and] requires an escalation in force. …Those masculine responses can prove deadly.

“Procedural fairness and body cameras do not reach the root causes of police abuse. …The best method I have found for reducing cop macho is de-escalation training.”

Cooper’s scholarly interests lie at the intersection of criminal procedure, cultural studies, and masculinities studies, especially as applied to policing of men of color.