On September 15, 2015, Immigration Clinic Fellow Virginia Benzan argued before the US Court of Appeals for the First Circuit on behalf of an Immigration Clinic client. Suffolk Law School clinic students litigated the issue in Immigration Court, drafted appeal briefs before the Board of Immigration Appeals and drafted the appeal brief before the First Circuit. The case addresses, among other issues, whether federal “crimes of violence” under 18 USC section 16(a) include state crimes that do not require proof of use of force as an element or acts that constitute batteries under state law but involve only minor uses of force. The appeal raise issues of first impression in the First Circuit that have broad significance for the application of federal criminal statutes that can result in mandatory detention, forcible removal, and permanent exclusion from the United States of even longtime lawful permanent residents.