Coronavirus Advisory

The University continues to take steps to respond to the evolving coronavirus (COVID-19) health epidemic, with the safety of our students, employees and the wider community as our highest priority. Please see the latest information and updates on this page.

Page Updated: April 4, 2020

Community Update on Suffolk COVID-19 Positive Results

Updated April 3, 2020

A total of eight (8) members of the Suffolk community have reported being tested positive for COVID-19 and are receiving appropriate care. These individuals include six students and two employees, with half of the students experiencing symptoms and diagnoses outside of the United States. As the University and the city of Boston continue to plan for an extended period of concern regarding COVID-19, Suffolk will update this page with the known number of positive COVID-19 diagnosed cases in our Suffolk community. Please be aware that it is likely that community members will self-quarantine or self-isolate per medical advice and never be tested for COVID-19. For more information about self-quarantine and self-isolation, see the Coronavirus Health Information section of this Suffolk Coronavirus Advisory page and CDC recommendations.

Please Respect Privacy

It is important that the Suffolk community respect the privacy of individuals diagnosed with COVID-19, as we would for anyone with a health concern. Even if you believe you know who an ill individual may be, please respect their privacy as diagnosed individuals focus upon their health during a difficult time.

Notification about exposure to COVID-19

The appropriate Department of Public Health oversees contact investigation regarding an ill individual and associated exposure notifications. Persons who have had close contact with individuals in question by the Department of Public Health are notified in accordance with standard public health processes. If you have not been notified, then you are not deemed to have increased risk because of exposure to these individuals.

For more information about COVID-19, please review this Suffolk Coronavirus webpage and the additional external resources provided.

Latest Advisories

Dear Members of the Suffolk Community,

We write to update you on the number of positive tests for COVID-19 among Suffolk employees and students, as well as to share how future community updates on these numbers will be made.

To date, a total of eight members of the Suffolk community have reported being tested positive for COVID-19 and all are receiving appropriate care. These individuals include six students and two employees. Half of the students experienced symptoms and were diagnosed outside of the United States. All eight of these individuals at the most recent reports have recovered or are recovering well.

As described in previous University communications, Suffolk continues to follow the guidance and recommendations of public health authorities with regard to COVID-19 cases in our community. City and state public health authorities have a standard communication protocol that includes notification of people who have had direct exposure to an ill individual. While we will keep the campus community updated on how COVID-19 is affecting our community, to reiterate, exposure notifications for individuals are made by public health authorities.

As the University and the city of Boston continue to plan for an extended period of concern regarding COVID-19, Suffolk will regularly update the Coronavirus Advisory page with the known number of positive COVID-19 diagnosed cases in our Suffolk community.

Following Boston Public Health Commission and Massachusetts Department of Public Health guidance in support of community health remains a priority for the University, as does maintaining privacy for affected members of our community. It is important that the Suffolk community respects the privacy of individuals diagnosed with COVID-19, as we would for anyone with a health concern.

During this challenging time for our community, our city, the nation, and the world, we know that students and employees may have specific questions and concerns regarding COVID-19.

  • Students with any questions or concerns regarding COVID-19 are encouraged to call Counseling, Health & Wellness, Monday through Friday, from 9 a.m. - 5 p.m. at 617-573-8226.
  • Employees with questions or concerns regarding COVID-19 are encouraged to contact their medical provider.
  • Students and employees also can call the Boston Public Health Commission at 617-534-5050, access the MGH COVID-19 Hotline, 8 a.m. - 8 p.m., 7 days a week at 617-724-7000, and the Suffolk University Coronavirus Advisory page for more information.

We hope these resources are helpful to you.

Sincerely,

Jean M. Joyce-Brady
Director of Counseling, Health & Wellness

Gina Begley
Interim Chief Human Resources Officer

Dear Colleagues,

In the face of the COVID-19 pandemic, the University is working with Mayor Walsh and the city of Boston in support of the city's response planning. Today, the mayor announced a comprehensive plan for individuals experiencing homelessness in the city of Boston during the COVID-19 public health emergency. As part of that plan, the University is making Miller Hall, with its 172 rooms, available for city needs as it responds to the public health crisis and supports Boston's most vulnerable.

We have notified the 22 students living in Miller Hall that we will be working in the coming days to relocate them to the Modern Theatre Residence Hall. We understand that this is an inconvenience for those students, and we very much appreciate their understanding and commitment to supporting the city that is their home. Facilities staff will assist with the moves and work to minimize any disruption to those students. As you know, the vast majority of our students have left the residence halls, so we do have enough space to ensure that we can provide them with the appropriate space for social distancing and safety.

During this temporary use, The Boston Public Health Commission will manage the facility in collaboration with the Pine Street Inn.

Mayor Walsh has been clear that the precautions and preparations the city, its institutions, and its residents take now will be critical to successfully responding to the crisis. We commend him for his leadership, and we stand ready to help in any way. Boston is our home, and the University takes very seriously its responsibility to be a good citizen at a time when we are all being called upon to pitch in and help.

Sincerely,

Marisa Kelly
President

Dear Miller Hall Resident,

In the face of the COVID-19 pandemic, the University is working with Mayor Walsh and the city of Boston in support of the city's response planning. That includes making Miller Hall available for city needs as it responds to the public health crisis and supports the city's most vulnerable who are impacted by COVID-19.

In the next few days, we will be working with you and other Miller Hall residents currently living on campus to relocate you to the Modern Theatre Residence Hall. To minimize the stress of moving and disruption to your schedule, our facilities staff will transport your belongings to the Modern Theatre. As you know, the vast majority of our students have left the residence halls, so we do have enough space to ensure that we can provide you with the appropriate space for social distancing and safety. Residence Life and Housing will communicate with you directly about this.

For those of you who have moved from Miller Hall but left your belongings to be picked-up at later date, University staff will pack your belongs and store them for you on campus. However, if you prefer to come to campus to pick up your belongings in the next few days, you may do so by contacting reslife@suffolk.edu.

Mayor Walsh has been clear that the precautions and preparations the city, its institutions, and its residents take now will be critical to successfully responding to the crisis. We commend him for his leadership, and we stand ready to help in any way. Boston is our home, and the University takes very seriously its responsibility to be a good citizen at a time when we are all being called upon to pitch in and help.

We know this is an inconvenience and appreciate your understanding. Every effort will be made so your relocation to the Modern Theatre is as smooth as possible. We know the city of Boston is your home, too, and we thank you for your ongoing commitment to our great city.

Please stay safe and watch for an email from Residence Life and Housing.

Sincerely,

Marisa Kelly
President

Ann E. Coyne
Vice President for Student Affairs & Dean of Students

Coronavirus Health Information

Suffolk has recommended individuals follow CDC guidance regarding when to seek medical care:

Anyone experiencing a fever and symptoms of respiratory illness (e.g. cough, difficulty breathing)

AND WHO HAS EITHER

traveled within a CDC level 3 risk country in the 14 days prior to symptom onset

OR

had close contact with someone who is sick and being evaluated for COVID-19 or who has received a laboratory confirmed COVID-19 diagnosis, should call a medical resource:

  • Students should call Counseling, Health and Wellness (CHW) at 617-573-8260 during business hours to consult with a CHW Nurse Practitioner.
  • Employees should call their personal medical provider.
  • Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) COVID-19 Hotline – operates 8 a.m. – 8 p.m., 7 days a week for callers with COVID-19 questions or concerns – call 617-724-7000.
  • After 8PM, call the MGH Emergency Department at: 617-724-4100.

If you are concerned about your possible exposure to coronavirus, seek immediate medical consultation and instructions from a medical provider.

The CDC and Boston Public Health Commission have recommended precautionary measures consistent with routine preventive measures for many types of virus transmissions, including common colds and influenza. They include:

  • Frequent hand-washing with soap and warm, running water for at least 20 seconds; if soap and water are not readily available, use an alcohol-based hand sanitizer with at least 60 percent alcohol
  • Coughing or sneezing into your sleeve
  • Avoid touching your eyes, nose, or mouth
  • Do not share food, drink, or eating utensils
  • Have no contact with bodily fluids of an ill person
  • Stay hydrated
  • Stay home when ill until fever-free for 24 hours

Updated 4/4/2020

As of April 3, 2020, the CDC changed its recommendation regarding the wearing of face cover for asymptomatic persons (persons not experiencing COVID-19 symptoms) when they are in public settings, especially settings in which public distancing is difficult to maintain. The CDC now recommends that cloth face cover be worn in public settings by all individuals without COVID-19 symptoms. 

This revised recommendation is based upon evidence that “a significant portion of individuals with COVID-19 lack symptoms (“asymptomatic”), and that individuals who eventually develop symptoms (“pre-symptomatic”) can transmit the virus to others before showing symptoms.” People can transmit the COVID-19 virus before showing symptoms when interacting in close proximity to others (e.g., speaking, coughing, sneezing). Therefore, wearing cloth face cover in public settings is a prevention step for the transmission of COVID-19 by asymptomatic individuals.

It is important to note that recommended cloth face cover is NOT surgical masks or N-95 respirators. Surgical masks and N-95 respirators are critical supplies needed for healthcare workers and medical first responders. The CDC states that cloth face cover can be fashioned from household items or made at home from common materials at low cost.

Face cover should:

  • cover your nose and mouth
  • fit snugly but comfortably against the side of the face
  • be secured with ties or ear loops
  • include multiple layers of fabric
  • allow for breathing without restriction
  • be able to be laundered and machine dried without damage or change to shape

The CDC cautions to NOT place face cover on:

  • children under the age of 2
  • anyone having trouble breathing
  • anyone unconscious, incapacitated or otherwise unable to remove the face cover

For more information about wearing, making and cleaning face cover, see the CDC website.

Quarantine is the separation of a person or group of people reasonably believed to have been exposed to a communicable disease but is not symptomatic. The person is separated from others to prevent the possible spread of the communicable disease.

Isolation is the separation of a person or group of people reasonably believed to be infected with a communicable disease and to be potentially infectious. The isolation is intended to prevent the spread of the communicable disease. The isolation may be voluntary or compelled by federal, state, or local public health order.

Suffolk University is currently requiring travelers from CDC level 3 high risk countries (whether they are with or without symptoms) to not come to campus, not be in a residence hall, or not attend any Suffolk sponsored events until 14 days after their first day of arrival in the U.S. Suffolk strongly advises such individuals to follow Self-Quarantine instructions described below.

Suffolk strongly advises such individuals to follow Self-Quarantine instructions described here. Should a student require immediate administrative assistance regarding implementation of University quarantine guidelines, they should:

  • Boston Campus CAS/SBS students: call the Office of Student Affairs (617-573-8239) during business hours or call Suffolk Police (617-573-8333) after business hours and request to receive a call from the Dean on Call.
  • School of Law students: call the Law School Dean of Students Office (617-573-8157) during business hours or call Suffolk Police (617-573-8333) and request to receive a call from the Law School Dean of Students.
  • Madrid Campus students: call the Madrid Campus (+34) 91-533-5935 during business hours, or call Madrid Staff on Call at (+34) 628-294-290 after business hours to speak with a Madrid campus staff member.

Self-Quarantine Steps – COVID-19

The purpose of self-quarantine is to separate and prevent the movement of asymptomatic people who have been exposed to or at higher risk of having been exposed to an infectious disease, in this case, COVID-19.

“Self-quarantine” means that you will have to stay home and monitor yourself for any potential signs of infection—coughing, fever, chills or muscle aches—for the duration of the incubation period (14 days), checking your temperature in the morning and evening,

Stay at home means you cannot go to work or school, attend social activities, or visit any public places.

  • If possible, you should stay in a well-ventilated room that is your own living space in a home or apartment setting.
  • Do not spend time with family or friends in person.
  • Do keep in touch with friends, significant others, and family via phone or text as this is important to supporting your well-being.
  • Do not have contact with family pets or animals.
  • If you live with others, it’s recommended to have separate sleeping quarters (sleeping alone in a separate room).
  • It’s also preferable to have your own bathroom. If you must share one, it’s vital to clean it after every use, using disinfectants that contain at least 60-90% alcohol or bleach-based cleaning wipes.
  • Use your own dishes, drinking glasses and eating utensils; do not share with others.
  • Meal delivery is acceptable, but it must be left outside your door or room.
  • Hand washing is paramount. Frequent hand-washing with soap and warm, running water for at least 20 seconds is important; if soap and water are not readily available, use an alcohol-based hand sanitizer with at least 60 percent alcohol.
  • If you develop a fever or a cough and/or breathing difficulties, contact a medical provider or hospital ER by phone.
  • If you develop a fever or a cough and/or breathing difficulties, wear a mask if others need to enter your room for emergency care.

Consult CDC recommendations for more details for implementing both” self-quarantine” and “self-isolation” in the setting of potential exposure, or if you test positive for COVID-19.

Please consult the CDC recommendations above for any updates or changes.

Adapted from https://www.forbes.com/sites/robertglatter/2020/03/02/what-does-it-mean-if-you-are-asked-to-self-quarantine-for-the-coronavirus/#7073f9327def

Travel Information and Advisories

See the most up to date CDC travel advisories.

Temporary Travel Policies, last updated March 18, 2020

Students – Suffolk-Sponsored Travel
  1. All outbound and inbound Suffolk-sponsored international travel by students and employees through May 31, 2020, have been canceled.
  2. Decisions about Suffolk-sponsored international trips and international travel seminars scheduled to run later in the Spring and Summer have not been made, but we will continue to monitor the situation.
  3. All Suffolk-sponsored domestic travel will be evaluated on a case by case basis. Students should contact their trip leaders for more information.  Trip leaders should contact the Dean of Students, Ann Coyne, or the Dean of Students at the Law School, Laura Ferrari, as applicable.
  4. In order to manage the logistics and the financial consequences in this uncertain time, students should not book flights for Suffolk-sponsored travel on their own.  All flight bookings will be managed centrally through the Center for International Programs and Services (CIPS).  Students who have already purchased flights should not make changes in their flights until instructed to do so.
  5. If a student studying abroad returns to the United States from any country for which the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has issued a Warning Level 3 notice or for which the United States Department of State has issued a Level 3 or Level 4 Travel Advisory for COVID-19, that student must successfully complete a 14-day self-quarantine period off campus, before being permitted to attend any Suffolk-sponsored activities, attend classes, or be present in a Suffolk residence hall.
  6. CIPS enters the travel information for students scheduled to travel on Suffolk-sponsored international trips into our tracking database with Drum Cussac, our global travel assistance partner.
Students – Personal Travel
  1. As communicated on March 5, 2020, students are strongly discouraged from personal international travel at this time.
  2. If you do choose to travel internationally, please be aware of the latest advice from the CDC and the United States Department of State, as well as local health authorities at your destination. In this rapidly evolving situation, you may find yourself being quarantined abroad, and you may have difficulty re-entering the United States.
  3. If a Suffolk student travels to any country for which the CDC has issued a Warning Level 3 notice or for which the United States Department of State has issued a Level 3 or Level 4 Travel Advisory for COVID-19, that student must successfully complete a 14-day self-quarantine period off campus, before being permitted to attend any Suffolk-sponsored activities, attend classes, or be present in a Suffolk residence hall.
Students – Online Tracking Tool
    1. Students are strongly encouraged to register their personal international travel using our University tracking tool. This will allow us to better communicate with you.
    2. Students considering personal domestic travel should consult the section on the CDC website for travel within the United States for the latest information about their destination.

    Temporary Travel Policies, last updated March 18, 2020

    Faculty and Staff – Suffolk-Sponsored Travel
    1. All outbound and inbound Suffolk-sponsored international travel by students and employees through May 31, 2020, have been canceled.
    2. Travelers currently abroad may complete their trip. Any returning employee who has visited a country for which the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has issued a Warning Level 3 notice or for which the United States Department of State has issued a Level 3 or Level 4 Travel Advisory for COVID-19 will be required to successfully complete a self-quarantine period of 14 days off campus before being permitted attend any Suffolk-sponsored activities, or be present on the Suffolk campus.
    3. The University will evaluate Suffolk-sponsored domestic travel on a case by case basis and will be flexible in response to employee concerns. . Managers with questions about upcoming domestic travel should consult with their Vice President or Senior Vice President.  Faculty should consult with their Dean.
    Faculty and Staff – Personal Travel
    1. All personal international travel is strongly discouraged and employees are urged to consider the benefits and risks of personal international travel at this time.
    2. If you do choose to travel internationally, please be aware of the latest advice from the CDC and the United States Department of State, as well as local health authorities at your destination. In this rapidly evolving situation, you may find yourself being quarantined abroad, and you may have difficulty re-entering the United States.
    3. If an employee visits any country for which the CDC has issued a Warning Level 3 notice or for which the United States Department of State has issued a Level 3 or Level 4 Travel Advisory for COVID-19, the employee must successfully complete a 14-day self-quarantine period, before being permitted attend any Suffolk-sponsored activities, or be present on the Suffolk campus.
    Faculty and Staff – Online Tracking Tool
    1. All employees are strongly encouraged to register their personal international travel using our internal tracking tool. This will allow us to better communicate with you.
    2. Employees considering personal domestic travel should consult the section on the CDC website for travel within the United States for the latest information about their destination.

    Suffolk University is currently requiring travelers from CDC level 3 high risk countries (whether they are with or without symptoms) to not come to campus, not be in a residence hall, or not attend any Suffolk sponsored events until 14 days after their first day of arrival in the U.S.

    Suffolk strongly advises such individuals to follow Self-Quarantine instructions described on this page.

    Any CAS/SBS undergraduate or graduate student with international travel questions should contact Greg Jabaut, Director of International Student Programs. Any law students with international travel questions should contact Laura Ferrari, Law School Dean of Students.

    Event and Meeting Policies

    All Suffolk-sponsored group events of any size that bring visitors to our campus are canceled until further notice. One-on-one meetings with visitors may continue. We will continue to monitor the situation and will lift this restriction when warranted.

    This includes:

    • admitted student events
    • campus tours for more than one student
    • conferences
    • events planned by faculty, staff, and students in all three schools
    • events planned by central units such as Admissions, CTSE, Human Resources and others

    Organizers are encouraged to develop virtual alternatives where possible, as our central Admissions team is already doing for their events.

    We are monitoring the situation and a decision will be made on Commencement at a later time.

    All Suffolk-sponsored group events that take place outside our campus should be canceled. We will continue to monitor the situation and will lift this restriction when warranted.

    Although the advisability of Suffolk-sponsored domestic travel will continue to be evaluated on a case-by-case basis, the cancelation of all Suffolk-sponsored group events that take place outside our campus will greatly reduce the number of domestic travelers and help to prevent the spread of the virus.

    In consultation with the Boston Public Health Commission, internal group meetings of Suffolk faculty, students and staff must be no larger than 25 people.

    • Meeting organizers are urged to develop online alternatives to internal group meetings.
    • For face-to-face internal group meetings of fewer than 25 Suffolk community members, we recommend following the CDC guidance about groups, which include social distancing for those meetings that are not held online, i.e., holding the meeting in a space that is large enough to allow a significant distance between participants.
    • We encourage the use of Zoom meetings, which can be held virtually and scheduled directly from Outlook.

    Additional Resources and Information

    All students should follow the class attendance policy listed below as it pertains to their school enrollment. Should a campus communicable infectious disease impact the wider campus community, students will be notified of any temporary change in this policy.

    The Off-Campus Housing Office (OCHO) has received inquiries from students and family members about continuing to live in an off-campus apartment or ending their lease since the University has moved to virtual learning. We have prepared the following information to assist you in considering your options.

    Your Tenant Responsibilities

    Students are legally responsible for complying with the terms of the rental lease signed including ensuring they pay their rent in full and on time. Failure to pay the rent can result in the landlord taking you to Small Claims Court. Students who wish end the apartment lease early should contact the landlord or property manager to discuss options. More information about tenant responsibilities may be found at the Mass Legal Help Website.

    Subletting

    Students who wish to move out of their apartment but not end the lease, might consider subletting the apartment if permitted in the lease or through discussions with the landlord, but you should note that many leases do not allow for subleasing.  If subleasing is allowed under the lease, OCHO can help. You may list sublets or find roommates on the OCHO on-line housing website.

    • Post an apartment or room: You can list an apartment or room for free online.  Once you log into the website using your Suffolk University email credentials, you have the ability to post pictures and details of the room or unit. You can find this under "My Account" page, under the Housing header, "Add Listing."
    • Post a roommate profile: You can create a roommate profile under the "Roommate" tab, noting that they are "Looking for a Roommate."  Profiles can be viewed by the Suffolk community as well as neighboring institutions. You can also email the Off-Campus Housing Office for additional options as management companies are sharing March and April openings.

    Moving & Storage Information

    A list of moving and storage companies is included here [PDF]. Suffolk University does not endorse any of the companies listed.

    If You Need Medical Assistance while Living in a Local Off-Campus Apartment

    As communicated in previous COVID-19 Suffolk health advisories, you should consult with a medical provider:

    • If you develop symptoms of a fever AND a cough OR shortness of breath AND you have recently traveled in China, Iran, Italy, OR South Korea OR
    • If you have had exposure to a person diagnosed with COVID-19 OR
    • If you have had exposure to a person who is being evaluated for COVID-19.

    You may call Counseling, Health and Wellness at 617-573-8260 during business hours or your medical provider at home. Do not go to the offices before calling and speaking with someone. After business hours, please call Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) Emergency Department at 617-724-4100 or your local hospital emergency room.

    Off-Campus Student Behavior

    OCHO encourages students living in off-campus apartments to practice social distancing and limit contact with large crowds. Also, please continue to demonstrate responsible citizenship in your local neighborhoods.

    Contacting OCHO

    If you have any questions, please contact OCHO. The office is open and operating and is available for in-person and virtual meetings with students. Please call OCHO at 617-573-8647 to schedule a convenient appointment.

    Best regards,

    Yvette Claudia Velez

    Director

    Off-Campus Housing Office

    Boston Campus Students

    Counseling, Health & Wellness
    5th floor, 73 Tremont Street
    617-573-8226

    Suffolk CARES
    12th floor, 73 Tremont Street, Student Affairs Office
    617-573-8239

    Dean of Students Office/Law School (Law Students only)
    4th floor, Sargent Hall
    617-573-8329
    lawdeanofstudents@suffolk.edu

    Center for International Programs and Services
    9th floor, 73 Tremont Street
    617-725-4151

    Interfaith Center
    8th floor, Sawyer Building, 8 Ashburton Place, room 823
    617-573-8325

    INTO Suffolk (INTO Students Only)
    4th floor, 73 Tremont Street
    617-573-8700

    Madrid Campus Students

    Madrid Campus
    (+34) 91-533-5935

    Comunidad de Madrid
    Dedicated line for Madrid COVID-19 concerns at: 900 102 112

    What should employees do if they think they have been exposed to the Coronavirus?

    1. The employee should stay home or go home and immediately seek medical guidance.
    2. The employee should consult with their healthcare provider and follow their healthcare provider’s guidance OR call a COVID-19 health resource and follow their guidance:
      1. The Massachusetts General COVID-19 hotline at 617-724-7000 is open 8 a.m. – 8 p.m., 7 days a week. After 8 p.m., call your local hospital ER.
      2. The Boston Public Health Commission at 617-534-5050.
    3. The employee should notify their manager about how medical guidance will impact their work attendance, if this is the case. Please note: If medical guidance indicates that your concern about coronavirus exposure does not warrant self-quarantine or self-isolation, you can return to work if you are not ill, or contact your manager about work from home options.
    4. If an employee needs to remain home from work per medical guidance, they should contact our 3rd party administrator, Sedgwick, at 888-436-9530.  Sedgwick is our third-party absence management administrator providing consultation and administrative support.
    5. The Suffolk HR Benefit Leave Administrator will be notified by Sedgwick and will follow up with the employee’s manager and the employee to review next steps. For any questions about this or leave of absence, email Human Resources.

    Concerns about Students

    Faculty and staff responding to questions from students about coronavirus are encouraged to refer students to these advisory pages for more information.  Faculty and staff should also instruct students who are concerned about their own health related to coronavirus to call CHW (617-573-8260) to speak with a Nurse Practitioner.

    Employee Support

    Suffolk employees with questions about their health related to coronavirus should contact their personal health providers.  We are aware some employees may have family or loved ones impacted by coronavirus, and others may be experiencing increased distress or worry related to the outbreak.  Employees in need of emotional support are encouraged to contact EAP resources for assistance. For more information visit their website, enter “Suffolk University” for company name, and “guest” for the password, or call them at 1-800-828-6025.

    Remote Readiness Drop-In Zoom Sessions for All Faculty and Staff

    If you don’t know where to start when thinking about working remotely, begin here. Drop in anytime during these sessions to prepare you and your colleagues for the needs of working in a remote environment. Please expect to spend 15-20 minutes in the session in order to ensure familiarity with necessary practices.